Directions for next 5 questions: In each question below a set of four statements is given, followed by five answer options to categories these statements as facts, inferences, and judgments. Consider the statements and decide which of the choices out of the four given is true.
F: Fact: If it relates to a known matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
J: Judgment: If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
I: Inference: If it is a logical conclusion or deduction about something, based on the knowledge of facts
1. 1. The Pharma companies in India often conduct controversial clinical trials exploiting the ignorant and illiterate volunteers.
2. Minster of State for Health Panbaka Lakshmi raised this issue in the Parliament ordering an inquiry against “Shreen Cancer Institute of Tamil Nadu”.
3. Full length debate followed in the Parliament and the Union Cabinet constituted a Central drug authority to check and monitor the illegal clinical trials by the drug makers.
4. There have been many instances of drugs being tested without consent. It is maintained by the Enquiry Proceedings that Sun Pharma’s Letrozole was illegally tried on 400 women.
2. 1. The Director of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences opines that in India the socio-economic profile shows dismal picture, as the majority of volunteers are poor, illiterate, and prone to exploitation by the drug makers.
2. In the last ten years, the pharma industry has grown in size but the regulatory staff of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) remains the same; a team of only 10 professionals to monitor the drug abuse.
3. There is no publicly accessible national data available in the country to check the drug abuse and often medical devices are not notified by the drug makers.
4. Violations under the Drugs Abuse Act are a punishable offence but the drug makers are aware of the loopholes of the Drugs Act and they often go unpunished.
3. 1. In the fourth budget speech of Mr. P Chidambram, there was almost nothing for industry, except for the lowering of peak rate of customs duty, and a hike in dividends distribution tax.
2. The logic of the Finance Minster must have been that since both industry and stock markets had been on the path of growth, there was no need to concede more sops to them.
3. The Sensex reacted sharply and it plummeted 540 points on the budget day.
4. The Finance Minister stated that the farm sector had grown by a mere 2.3% compared to the desired level of 4% in the 10th plan, and found wisdom in Nehru’s comment that “everything else can wait, but not agriculture”
4. 1. The Union Budget 2007 has proposed Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme to check the growing drop out rate of children in the schools situated in rural and tribal areas.
2. The pro-poor philosophy was evident in the budget of 2007 as the Finance Minister proposed hike in divided distribution tax, and imposed fringe benefit tax on the salaried people.
3. Inflationary pressure compelled the Finance Minister to reduce the peak rate of custom duty to match the lower Asian levels though the dual excise duty structure on cement worried the Finance Minister.
4. The logic behind the duty cut was explained as the Finance Minister said “I have put these revenues to good use to promote growth, equity and social justice.”
5. 1. Moody’s Investors’ Service, in its latest analysis of the country’s budget 2007, pointed out the profound dilemmas of poverty and lack of inclusion though the economic growth rate is unprecedented.
2. Moody’s may not be out of place in believing that in providing higher allocations to education, health and infrastructure, the thrust of the fiscal planners is to achieve “shining India” feeling.
3. The reduction of indirect taxes and excise duties is not an effective anti-dote to the inflationary pressures and rising prices are a serious jolt to the growing economy.
4. The 2007-08 Budget confirms the helplessness of the policy makers who admit that higher interest rates and increasing market volatility may dampen the spirit of the investors.